Silkworms breed by eggs, which look like grains of sesame and are 1 mm wide, 0.5 mm thick. A female moth can produce about 450-500 grains of silkworm eggs, weighing about 1 g. When they are just laid, they are light yellow or yellow eggs. They turn into red-bean color after 1-2 days and then become sage green or purple through 3-4 days later. From then on, their color no longer changes, known as the fixed color. Silkworm eggs have outer hard shells, with egg yolk and serous in it. Zygote embryo continuously absorbs nutrition in the process of growth, gradually developing into newly-hatched silkworms, and then climb out from the egg shell. The egg shells are white or light yellow when empty.
Newly-hatched silkworms-matured silkworms
蚁蚕：蚕从蚕 卵中孵化出来时，身体的 颜色是褐色或赤褐色的，极细小，且多细毛，样子有点象蚂蚁，所以叫蚁蚕。蚁蚕长约2毫米，体宽约0.5毫米，它从卵壳中爬出来后，经过2-3小时就会进食桑叶。
蚁蚕-熟蚕：蚕宝宝食桑量极大，因此，长得很快，体色也逐渐变淡。有时它 的食欲逐渐地有所减退乃至完全禁食，它吐出少量的丝，将腹足固定在蚕座上，头胸部昂起，不再运动，好像睡着了一样，称作“眠”。眠中的蚕，外表看似静止不动，体内却 进行着脱皮的准备，这又称龄期，表示蚕 宝宝处于某一个发育阶段。从蚁蚕 到第一次蜕皮为第一龄；眠起后进入第二龄；再次蜕 皮后进入第三龄；第三次 蜕皮后进入第四龄，第四次蜕皮又称大眠。大眠后就进入第五龄，五龄的 蚕宝宝长得极快，体长可达6-7厘米，体重可达蚁蚕重量的1万倍左右。
熟蚕：蚕宝宝到了五龄末期，就逐渐 体现出老熟的特征：先是排 出的粪便由硬变软，由墨绿色变成叶绿色；食欲减退，食桑量下降；前部消化管空虚，胸部呈透明状；继而完全停食，体驱缩短，腹部也趋向透明，蚕体头胸部昂起，口吐丝缕，左右上 下摆动寻找营茧场所，这样的蚕就称为熟蚕。
Newly-hatched silkworms: When just hatched from eggs, their body is brown or russet, tiny, and fuzz, looking like ants, so they are also called ant silkworms. Ant silkworms are about 2 mm long, 0.5 mm wide. After they leave the shells, they begin to eat mulberry leaves 2-3 hours later.
Newly hatched silkworms-matured silkworms: Silkworm babies eat a lot, therefore, they grow fast with body color gradually becoming weak. But sometimes their appetite gradually wanes and even fast. Vomiting out a small amount of silk, fixing gastropod on rearing bed, raising cephalothorax, resting as if asleep, this period is known as "Dormant Period". Silkworms in this period seem motionless, but their bodies are preparing for peeling. It’s also called “Aging”, showing the silkworms are in a certain development stage. The first aging is when ant silkworms peel for the first time; They are in the second aging period when they are awake; It’s the third aging period when they peel again; When they peel for the third time, whey enter into the fourth period, the fourth molting is also called “Long sleep”; Just after the long sleep, it’s the fifth aging period. Silkworms grow very fast in this period, their body can be up to 6-7 cm long, weighing about 10000 times heavier than the newly-hatched silkworms.
Matured silkworms: Silkworms gradually reflect the aging characteristics when they are in the fifth period: Firstly, their shit turn from soft to shit and from dark green to green; Then they lose the appetite and eat less; Their anterior digestive tube is empty and turn transparent; Afterwards, they completely stop eating with a shorter body and transparent abdomen. Silkworm raise their cephalothorax, spinning silk, bobbing around looking for cocoon camp sites. Such silkworms are called matured silkworms.
Cocoon when matured
人们把 熟蚕放在特制的容器中或蔟器上，蚕便吐丝结茧了。 结茧可分为四个过程：1、熟蚕先将丝吐出，粘结在蔟器上，再吐丝连接周围蔟枝，形成结茧支架，即结茧网。茧网不具备茧形，只是一 些松软凌乱的茧丝层，以作为结茧的支架。2、蚕结制茧网后，继续吐出凌乱的丝圈，加厚茧网内层，然后以S型方式吐丝，开始出现茧的轮廓，叫做结茧衣。茧衣的丝纤维细而脆，排列极不规则，丝胶含量也多。 3、茧衣形成后，茧腔逐渐变小，蚕体前 后两端向背方弯曲，成“C”字型，蚕继续吐出茧丝，吐丝方式由S形改变成∞形，这就开 始了结茧层的过程。4、当蚕由于大量吐丝，体躯大大缩小时，头胸部摆动速度减慢，而且没有一定的节奏，吐丝开始显得凌乱，形成松 散柔软的茧丝层，称为蛹衬。
After people put matured silkworms in a special container or straw cocooning frame, silkworms begin to spin cocoons. Cocoons can be divided into four processes: 1. Spiting out silk first, binding on the straw cocooning frame machine, then spinning again to connect the branches around straw cocooning frame, forming the bracket of cocoon, that is making cocoon nets. Cocoon nets does not have cocoon shape, they are just some soft and messy cocoon layer as the framework of the cocoon. 2. After silkworm finish making cocoon nets, they continue to spit out messy silk circles, thicken the endotheciums of cocoon nets and then spin silk out in S way. Finally, the outline of cocoon appear, called cocoon garments.
The silk fiber of cocoon garments is thin, brittle, highly irregular and contain much sericin. 3. Cocoon cavity, after the formation of cocoon, gradually become smaller. Silkworms bend both their hands and tails to the direction of their back into a "C" word and then continue to spit silk from S way to ∞, which starts the process of cocoon layer. 4. Their bodies are greatly smaller because the silkworms spin a large quantity of silk. Their cephalothorax’s swing speed slow down without certain rhythm. The spinning is starting to be messy, forming a loose and soft cocoon layer, which is called tetelettes.
silkworm chrysalises-Silkworm moths
蚕蛹：蚕上蔟结茧后经过4天左右，就会变成蛹。蚕蛹的 体形像一个纺棰，分头、胸、腹三个体段。头部很小，长有复眼和触角；胸部长有胸足和翅；鼓鼓的腹部长有9个体节。专业工 作者能够从蚕蛹腹部的线纹和褐色小点来判别雌雄。蚕刚化蛹时，体色是淡黄色的，蛹体嫩软，渐渐地就会变成黄色、黄褐色或褐色，蛹皮也硬起来了。经过大约12到15天，当蛹体又开始变软，蛹皮有 点起皱并呈土褐色时，它就将变成蛾了。
蚕蛾（成虫）：蚕蛾的形状像蝴蝶，全身披着白色鳞毛，但由于两对翅较小，已失去飞翔能力。蚕蛾的头部呈小球状， 长有鼓 起的复眼和触角；胸部长 有三对胸足及两对翅；腹部已无腹足，末端体 节演化为外生殖器。雌蛾体大，爬动慢；雄蛾体小，爬动较快，翅膀飞快地振动，寻找着配偶。一般交尾3-4小时后，雌蛾就可产下受精卵。交尾后雄即死亡,雌蛾约 花一个晚上可产下约500个卵,然后也会慢慢死去。
Silkworm chrysalis: 4 days after silkworms make cocoons on straw cocooning frame, they will turn into silkworm chrysalises. The shape of silkworm chrysalises are like spindles with three individual segments: head, chest and abdomen. Their heads are small with compound eye and tentacles; they have thoracic legs and wings on their chest and nine sections on their abdomens. Professionals can tell their gender from observing the abdominal lines and brown dots. When silkworms just become chrysalis, their body is light yellow, tender and soft. Gradually they become yellow, yellowish-brown or brown and their skin is harder. After about 12 to 15 days, their bodies become soft, the skin is a little wrinkle and tan. They will become moths at this time.
Silkworm moth (matured): The shape of the silkworm moth are like butterflies wearing white scales, but they can’t fly because their two pairs of wings are too small. Silkworm moths’ heads are round and little with summoned compound eyes and tentacles; There are three pairs of thoracic legs and two pairs of wings on their chest and no thoracic leg on their abdomen; The end somites evolve into genitals. The female moths’ bodies are big and creep slowly while the male moths’ body are small, climbing faster and keep looking for their mates. Generally after they mating after 3-4 hours, the female moths can lay eggs. The male moths will die just after the mating while the female moths will die slowly after they lay about 500 eggs for an evening.
柞蚕养殖期过后，专业人员及时采茧，进行甄选，留下最 好的蚕茧进行备料。柞蚕丝 具有独特的珠宝光泽，天然华贵，滑爽舒适，手感柔软而具弹性，是真丝 地毯材料的上佳之选。在原有 采购挑选的基础上，工厂质 检员仍要对新进的茧进行筛选，以确保 后期用来制作地毯的真丝是百分百质量保障的。挑选时，茧的尺寸、颜色、弹性、气味等 都是质检员考虑的因素。对于原材料，亿丝有 自己的一套标准体系，经过层层质量把关，只有质 量最为上乘的蚕茧才能最终用来制作手工丝毯。
After the Tussahs breeding period, professionals will harvest cocoons in time, then select the best cocoons to be raw materials. Tussah silk has unique jewelry burnish, natural and elegant, smooth and comfortable, soft and elastic, which is the best choice to be silk carpet material. On the basis of the original purchasing selection, the factory inspector will still need to filter the new cocoons, to ensure the silk which will be made into carpets is with absolutely quality assurance. During the selection, the cocoons’ size, color, elasticity, smell, etc are all inspectors’ considerations. For raw materials, YISI has its own set of standard system.Through rounds of quality control, only the highest quality cocoons can eventually be used to make handmade silk carpets.
用最传 统的手工抽丝法，把茧放 入清水中取出杂质，经过1-3次清水 过滤再放入沸水中煮20分钟后，进行抽丝，每公斤生茧抽纯丝0.3公斤，粗细按所需材料决定。
Using the most traditional manual silk reeling method, put the cocoon into clean water to remove impurities and then again use clean water to filter for 1-3 times. After the filtration, put them into boiling water for 20 minutes, then begin to reel off silk from cocoons. Raw cocoon of one kilogram can be reeled off 0.3kg silk, the thickness depends on the materials needed.
真丝的加工比较复杂，首先将 分股的真丝打开，放在5个以上 手工拼丝机上进行合并，粗细按所需道数而定，多股并为一股，而后进行染炼。
The silk processing is very complex, open the strands of silk at first, put it on more than five manual spelling silk machines to merge, the thickness depends on the lines needed, several strands become one strand at last. And then they are prepared to dye.